December 12, 2008

Hindu Religion Sansakrit - Glossary

sanskrit glossary,telugu,malayalam, kannada,tamil,hindi words included
Aalaya - Temple
Abhaya - Fearless; refuge
Abhishekam - Ceremonial cleansing of the Lord's idol
Acharya - One who shows the right path for others to follow; a preceptor

Adisesha - Primeval serpent mythologically conceived to bear the world on his 1000 hoods. Traditionally believed to support Lord Sri Venkateswara upon seven of his hoods, Narasimha on his coiled frame, Mallikarjuna on his twisted tail, and Srikalahastivara at the opening of his mouth.

Aditya - Sun God
Alankaram - Decoration
Alvar - Seer of a specific religious order in the Vaishnavaite Cult
Amrit - Nectar which when consumed, grants immortality
Angapradakshinam - A vow whereby pilgrims lie prostrate and roll around the temple
Ankurarpanam - The start of the Brahmotsavam festival
Alipiri - Starting point at the foot of the hills, for pilgrims who wish to reach Tirumala on foot
Annadanam - Distribution of free food
Annam - Food
Annamacharya/Annamayya - (1408-1503 AD); the earliest musician to compose songs in favour of Lord Sri Venkateswara
Appams - A sweet dish made of rice flour and offered to the Lord
Archaka - Priest
Archana - Worship of the Lord
Arjita Seva - Any seva for the performance of which pilgrims pay a fee
Ashta - Eight
Asthanam - Royal Court/Official Chamber of the King
Asva - Horse
Aushadha - Medicine
Avatara - A manifestation of God on Earth, with a specific mission.

BIRRD - Balaji Institute of Surgery, Research and Rehabilitation for the Disabled
Bahumanam - Gift
Balaji - Another name for Lord Sri Venkateswara
Bhagaswamyam - Partnership
Bhakti - Devotion
Brahma - God of Creation
Brahmins - Hindu priests

Chakra - The sacred disc (weapon of Lord Sri Maha Vishnu)
Chakkera Pongal - Sweet dish made of sugar, milk and rice
Chandanam - Sandalwood
Chandra - Moon
Chaulam - Ear lobe-piercing ceremony
Cherupulu - Food offered to the Lord
Chinna - Small
Chitrannam - A rice preparation, rich in spices
Choultry - Guesthouse where accommodation is free of charge. Also called Dharmasala.

Daanam - Charitable offering
Dadhyodanam - Dish made of spiced rice and curd
Daiva - Divine
Dakshina - South; Offering money to the Lord
Dala - Leaf
Darsanam/Darshan - Viewing the idol of the Lord
Dasavataram - Ten incarnations of Sri Maha Vishnu
Deepam - Lamp
Devas - The Gods
Devasthanam - Abode of the Gods
Dhanya - Cereal
Dharma - Set of righteous principles to be followed
Dharmasala - Guesthouse where accommodation is free of charge. Also called Choultry.
Dhoti - Cloth tied around the waist like a sarong
Dhvajasthambham - A sacred pillar in front of the Sri Venkateswara temple
Dhyana Yoga - Meditation
Divya Ananda Nilaya Vimana - Dome of the abode of divine bliss
Divya Vimana - Divine dome
Dosa - Pancake made with rice flour, black gram flour and oil
Dupatta - Long scarf draped across the shoulders and worn with the salwar kameez. Also see Salwar Kameez.
Dvara gopura - Gateway with a sculpted tower above it
Dvara/Dvaram/Dwaram - Entrance; gateway
Dvarapalakas - Door-keepers

Ekangi - Celibate disciple of the Sri Vaishnava Jiyar Matham
Ekantam - Private
Ekanta Seva - Private service conducted for the Lord, to which pilgrims are not admitted

Gadha - Mace which is the sacred weapon of Lord Sri Maha Vishnu
Gajam - Elephant
Gangala - Brass vessel
Garbha griha - The sanctum sanctorum of the Sri Venkateswara Temple which houses the idol of the Lord
Garuda - A white-necked Brahmani Kite .He is considered the vehicle of Sri Maha Vishnu
Ghat - mountain. Also see Ghats (Eastern)
Ghats (Eastern) - Mountain range for a part of these ranges that runs along south-eastern India. Tirumala-Tirupati .
Gopuram - The sculpted upper crest of a temple
Gotram - The sect to which a devotee belongs
Grihastha - Donor
Gurkha - Security guard
Guru - Teacher

Hamsa - Swan
Harati - Waving a plate (in which a sacred flame is lit) in front of the Lord's image. Also called Nirajana
Harikatha - Musical rendering of divine stories
Hiranyakasipu - Demon King who tried to destroy the Earth
Hiranyaksa - Younger brother of Hiranyakasipu, who succeeded the latter as Demon King
Homam - Sacred fire
Hundi - Receptacle for depositing offerings (in cash and kind) for the Lord


Ishta Daivam - Favourite deity

Janaloka - One of the seven regions above the Earth
Japam - Sacred word that is chanted repeatedly
Jata - Twisted hair that hangs down in coils at the back of the Lord Sri Venkateswara's idol
Jeghanta - Cymbals
Jilebi - Spiral-shaped sweet dish made of flour and jaggery jelly
Jyeshtha - Name of a month in the Hindu calendar

Kainkaryam - Ritualistic offering to God or worship of God
Kali Yuga - The Dark Age
Kalpa - Age or aeon. Also called Yuga
Kalyana Katta - Place where devotees have their hair cut as an offering to the Lord
Kalyanam - Marriage
Kalyana Mandapam - Marriage Hall
Kalyanotsavam - Celebration of the divine marriage between Lord Sri Venkateswara and Sri Padmavathi Devi
Kankanam - Metal bracelet worn around the wrist
Kapila - Grey-coloured
Karma Yoga - deeds
Karpooram - Camphor
Kasturitilakam - Lineament of musk drawn on the Lord's forehead
Katika - Placed on the waist
Keertanas - devotional songs
Kiritam - Crown
Koil - Temple
Koluvu - Darbar
Kula Daivam - Family Deity

Laddu - Spherical-shaped sweet made of flour and jaggery/sugar

Madhura bhakti - Deep devotion
Maha - Great
Mahatmya/Mahatmyam - Greatness
Mahatva - Importance
Makara Kundalas - ornaments shaped like an alligator, that adorn the ears of the main idol of the Lord
Mandapam - structure or monument with rich sculpture meant for a specific purpose like performing fine arts
Mantra - Sacred word(s) to be chanted repeatedly
Mantrodaka - Sacred water
Matsya Avatara - Manifestation of Lord Vishnu as a fish
Muhurtam - Auspicious time
Mukhadvaram - Main entrance (door) at the front of the temple
Mukkoti - Three crore (merging of three crore teerthams in the Swami Pushkarini).
Mukti/Moksha - Liberation of the soul
Mulaberam - The central idol of Lord Sri Venkateswara
Murthi - Statue
Mutyam - Pearl

Nacchimars - The Lord's two consorts - Sridevi and Bhudevi
Naivedyam - Food offering
Namakarana- Naming ceremony
Namam - White caste-mark on the Lord's forehead
Narada - The supreme devotee of Lord Vishnu; a connoisseur of all arts; a devarishi (according to the Bhagavad Gita 10:26)
Narasimha - Lord Vishnu's manifestation, with the face of a lion and the body of a human
Narayana - Lord Sri Maha Vishnu
Nava - Nine
Nayaka - Leader
Nija - Real, Original
Niluvudopidi - Offering to the Lord, the clothes/ornaments that one is wearing when one visits the temple
Nirajana - See harati
Nivedana - Offer/present

Om - The sacred syllable
Om Sri Venkatesaya Namah - Saluting the Lord by reciting His name

Padmam - Lotus
Padmavathi - Consort of Lord Sri Venkateswara
Pallaki - Palanquin
Panchangam - Indian almanac
Panchanga Sravanam - Listening to the forecast as directed by the Sastras
Pandal - Canopy
Panyarams - Laddus. See Laddus.
Papam - Sin
Parinayam - Marriage
Parishad - Union of Scholars
Pataloka - The nether world
Pati - Husband
Patrika - Letter
Pavithra - Sacred
Payasam - Watery sweet made with milk, sugar, cardamom and cashewnuts
Periya Jiyar - Saint of the Sri Vaishnava Jiyar Matham
Periyatirdadi - The first devotee
Pinda Prasadam - Ceremony conducted in memory of the departed
Pitambaram - Yellow silk cloth
Pongal - Rice dish cooked with cereals and spices
Puja/Pooja - Ritualistic worship of God
Poojari - One who performs rituals, chants prayers and worships God as a representative of the devotee
Poolangi - Of flowers
Poorna - Complete, full
Pracharam - Spreading
Pradakshinam - Path for circumambulating the temple
Pradhana acharya purusha - Chief priest
Prahlada - Son of the Demon King Hiranyakasipu and a staunch devotee of Lord Sri Maha Vishnu
Prakaram - Wall surrounding the temple
Pralaya Kalpa - The Great Deluge
Prarthana - Prayer
Prasadam - Food offered first to the Lord and then distributed (as sacred) among devotees
Prasanna - Pleased
Pratima - Bronze icon
Pratyeka - Special
Pravachanam - Hymn sung in praise of the Lord
Prayoga - Ready for release
Pulihora - A rice dish made with tamarind/lime and spices.
Puranas - Ancient Hindu scriptures
Purohit - Priest
Purohit Sangam - An association of priests
Pushkarini - Sacred water tank
Pushpa Yagam - Vedic ritual involving offering of flowers to God.
Pushpam - Flower

Rakshasa - Demon
Rama Pattabhishekam - The coronation of Lord Rama
Ranganayaka - One of the manifestations of Lord Sri Maha Vishnu. Also refers to the Deity at Sri Rangam.
Ratham - Chariot
Rishi - Sage

Sabha - Meeting;Group
Sadas - Meeting of intellectuals
Sahasra - Thousand
Sahasra Deepa - Thousand earthen lamps
Sakarabath - Sweetened rice
Salwar Kameez - Traditional Indian dress consisting of a loose knee-length top and a loose pant gathered at the ankles.
Samarpana - Offering
Samrakshana - Protection
Samsara Sagara - The ocean of Life
Sangam - Union
Sankalpam - Desire
Sankeertanas - Songs written in praise of the Lord
Sanku - The sacred conch of the Lord
Saranagati - To fall at a person's feet
Sari - traditional dress of Indian women
Sarovaram - Lake
Sarva - All
Sarvadarsanam - Viewing of the Deity for all; the time allotted for it.
Sastanga Danda Pramanam - prostrating before the Lord
Sastras - Various texts of ethical science dealing with code of conduct, morality, rituals etc.
Seera - Sweet dish
Seshachala - One of the famous seven hills of Tirupati believed to be the manifestation of the Snake God, Adisesha
Seshavahanam - Vehicle of the Lord (shaped like the Snake God Adisesha)
Seva - Service/Worship unto the Lord
Seven Hills - The seven hills of Lord Venkateswara's abode. They are Vrishabhadri, Garudadri, Seshadri, Anjanadri, Vedadri, Narayanadri and Venkatadri; from Tirupati, the seven hills have to be crossed to reach Tirumala
Sikharam - Pinnacle
Simha - Lion
Sishya - Disciple
Sloka - Stanza
Smaraka - in memory of .
Soma - Moon
Somalatha - A plant whose juice intoxicates if drunk; plant offered to the sacred fire in Somayaga
Somayaji - The person who performs somayaga
Sopanamarga - Stairway (Stone footpath leading to Tirumala)
Sravanam - Season of rainfall (according to the Hindu calendar), usually in August
Sri Bhu Devi - Also called Sri Padmavathi Devi; one of the two consorts of Lord Sri Venkateswara, the other being Sri Lakshmi Devi
Sri Lakshmi Devi - Also called Sri Devi; one of the two consorts of Lord Sri Venkateswara, the other being Sri Bhu Devi
Sri Maha Vishnu - 'The Preserver' who is believed to have manifested Himself on Tirumala as Lord Sri Venkateswara, to save mankind in the Kali Yuga
Sri Venkatachala Mahatmya - The sacred text which extols the glory of Lord Venkaterswara and His abode.
Srinivasa - Lord Venkateswara
Srivaru - Lord Venkateswara
Sthala Mahathmya - The greatness of a place
Sudarsana - The sacred disc weapon of Lord Vishnu
Suddhi - Cleansing
Sukhasana - A Yogic pose
Suprabhatam - Auspicious time at dawn, when the Lord is woken and prayers chanted
Surya - Sun
Sveta - White
Sveta Varaha - The incarnation of Sri Maha Vishnu as a fearsome white boar, to restore the Earth after the Great Deluge
Swami - God

Takeed - Receipt
Tatva - Substance
Tene - Honey
Thiru/Tiru - Respected, holy
Thirumanjanam - Fragrant powder prepared out of sandalwood and turmeric
Thomala Seva - Worship with garlands
Teertham - Holy water
Tirumala - Meaning 'the holy hill'; abode of Lord Sri Venkateswara situated atop the seven hills in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India
Tirumala Raya - a chieftain of the Araviti family, who renovated the Tirumala Raya Mandapam in the Sri Venkateswara temple
Tirupati - The sacred town of Lord Venkateswara at the foot of the seven hills in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh in India

Trimurthi - The holy trinity, comprising Lord Brahma, Lord Siva and Lord Vishnu
Tulabharam - Offering one's weight in coins to the Lord

Ubhaya Nacchiyars - The two consorts (Sri Devi and Bhu Devi) of the utsava murthi of Lord Sri Venkateswara.
Unjal - Cradle
Upanayanam -The ceremony of the investiture with the sacred thread
Utsava Murthi - Processional image of the Lord
Utsavam - Festival
Uttariyam - Garment for covering the shoulders or upper half of the body
Uyala Mandapam - Place where the Lord's idol is placed in a cradle and worshipped

Vada - Food item made of cereals and spices
Vaggeyakara - Composer
Vahana - The Lord's vehicle
Vaikuntam - Celestial abode of Sri Maha Vishnu
Vanabhivruddhi - Improvising gardens
Vanam - Garden; forest
Varada - boon
Varaha Kshetra - Place belonging to Varaha
Varahavatara/Varahaswami/Sveta Varaha - Incarnation of Sri Maha Vishnu as a boar with a human body
Vasantam - The Spring season
Vasanthotsavam - A festival held in Spring
Vastram - Clothes
Vayu Deva - The God of Wind
Veda - That knowledge which is worth knowing
Vedic Mantras - Sacred hymns
Venkateswara - He who cleanses the sins of His devotees
Vigraham - Statue
Vimana/Vimanam - Dome
Vinjamara - Whisk
Visesha - Important
Vishnu - (Vyapana Seelanath Vishnuhu) That which is all-pervading; the Supreme Being who is the saviour of the universe; also see Sri Maha Vishnu
Vishvaksena - Chief commander of the Lord's army

Yaga/Yagna - Vedic ritual in which various items are offered to God through a sacred fire
Yajnopavita - sacred thread worn by males of certain Hindu castes
Yuga - Aeon

Miscellaneous :

Scripture. Refers generally to all writings that at least some Hindus believe to be revealed, and more specifically to the medieval texts Pancaratra Samhitas, Saiva Agamas, and Sakta Tantras.
Ashtanga Yoga
("eight-limbed path"). The yoga with eight components: morality; ethics; posture; breath control; sense control; concentration; meditation; absorption. Also known as Raja Yoga ("royal path").
A person's true Self or underlying vital force. According to Vedanta philosophy, "atman is Brahman."
("Song of the Lord"). A section of the Mahabharata composed around 200 BCE, and one of the most beloved of Hindu texts. It tells the story of the warrior Arjuna who faces members of his own family in battle and is unsure of the right action. Arjuna is instructed by Krishna, who outlines three paths (marga) of life: knowledge, duty, and devotion.
Path of devotion to God (one of the three paths to moksha). See also jnana-marga and bhakti-marga.
Post-Vedic personal Creator god of the Hindu trinity (with Vishnu and Shiva). Usually represented as red in color and holding a goblet, a bow, a scepter, and the Vedas. Unlike Vishnu and Shiva, Brahma is seldom worshipped today.
("growth, expansion"). The impersonal Absolute, the unproduced Producer of all that is. In the Vedas, Brahman is the force behind the magical formulas. In the Upanishads it is the supreme, eternal principle behind the origin of the universe and of the gods. In Vedanta philosophy, it is the Self (atman) of all beings and knowledge of Brahman results in liberation (moksha).
("Pertaining to Brahmins"). Portion of the Vedas, written between 1,000 and 650 BCE, that explain mantras and provide further ritual instruction.
Hindu Mother Goddess whose major forms are Durga, Parvati, and Kali. In the Vedas, the Goddess was associated with natural phenomena such as dawn, night, and the Ganges River. In the post-Vedic period, Mahadevi (Great Goddess) became the source of energy in the cosmos and the counterpart of Shiva. For Shaktas, she is not a counterpart but the supreme deity herself.
(dhar, "uphold"). Rules of order, custom, and ethics, adherence to which is necessary to maintain order in society. In the Upanishads, dharma is primarily knowledge of the way to attain Brahman.
("Lord of the hosts"). Also Ganesha, Vinayaka, Ekadanta, Lambodara, Siddhadata, Vighnaraja. God of wisdom and good fortune, represented with a pot belly and the head of an elephant. Ganesh has been one of the most popular Hindu gods since medieval times and is claimed by all sects as their own. As the remover of obstacles, he is invoked before religious ceremonies and worldly undertakings.
The goddess of the sacred river Ganges in India. Its waters are used in worship and given to the dying to drink.
Hatha Yoga
The yoga (path) focusing on bodily postures to improve meditation. Popular in the West as a means to health, fitness, and relaxation. See Hatha Yoga.
Caste. The caste system determines social status based on birth and lineage, and is generally not alterable. Its importance has declined somewhat in urban areas, but is still important in marriage.
Path of knowledge and truth (one of three paths to moksa).
("action" or "deed"). Impact of previous deeds (usually in former lives) on one's current circumstances.
Path of works (one of three paths to moksa).
("snake"). The spiritual force in every human being that lies at the base of the spine, coiled like a snake. It is also called "serpent power." Once awakened through yoga and meditation, it rises through the chakras, producing spiritual knowledge and mystical powers.
("great tale of Bharata's descendents"). Epic tale of over 100,000 verses in length composed between about 400 BCE and 400 CE. The Mahabharata recounts the battle between the Pandavas and Kauravas for kingship. It contains the Bhagavad-Gita, in which the god Krishna assists the Pundava hero Arjuna at a moment of decision.
("great element"). The five elements: air, fire, water, earth, and ether.
One of the names of Shiva.
("great" + "knowledge"). Ten Hindu goddesses who represent the ten forms of transcendent knowledge and tantric power. They are personifications of Brahman's Sakti, so through worship of them, one can gain knowledge of Brahman. They are: Kali, Tara, Sodasi, Bhukanesvari, Bhairavi, Chinnamasta/Viraratri, Dhumavati, Bagala, Matangi and Kamala. The Mahavidyas were especially popular in medieval Bengal.
("Great Lord"). Epithet of Shiva (sometimes of Vishnu).
A Saivite text attributed to Shiva, dealing with the four ways that lead to ultimate insight: yoga, vedanta, language and music.
Consort of Mahesvara; a name for Shakti; one of the goddesses created by Shiva who constitute the Divine Mothers (Matrkas).
Path or way to moksa.
("release"). Liberation from the cycle of rebirth, which is believed by most philosophical schools to be the ultimate goal of life.
Gesture of greeting with spiritual and symbolic significance. See Namaste: The Significance of a Yogic Greeting.
Moral observance; something one should do. Comparable to the western idea of virtue.
Evil, sin, or misfortune, including both natural and moral evil. Synonym of adharma.
Very popular Hindu epic, composed around 700 CE by Valmiki. It is as long as the Christian Bible and tells the story of the virtuous hero Rama who rescues his beloved Sita from the evil king
A holy man who has renounced the material world to devote himself to spiritual practice. He wanders from place to place and owns nothing. A female sadhu is a sadhvi.
Hindu denomination devoted to the worship of Shiva, which usually tends to be more ascetic than Vaisnavism. Saivas are distinguished by three horizontal markings on the forehead. Saiva ascetics usually wear their hair long and matted and are often covered in ashes.
In yoga, movement from meditative concentration into total mental absorption.
sanatana dharma
("everlasting truth"). Hinduism.
Hindu denomination devoted to the worship of the goddess or divine female power (Sakti). Some schools (Sri Kula) worship the Goddess in her benign and beautiful form of Sri, while others (Kali Kula) worship the fierce goddess Kali.
Shakti (or Sakti)
The Great Goddess and consort of Shiva. Her many forms include Durga, Kali and Amba.
("auspicious"). Major deity and the third in the Hindu trinity (with Brahma and Vishnu). Shiva has roots in the pre-Vedic period, there associated with the god Rudra. To Saivities, Shiva is creator, preserver and destroyer, and the supreme deity.
("remembered"). Scriptures of human origin (as opposed to sruti) but highly regarded and authoritative.
("heard"). Revealed scriptures.
The science of breath control in yoga.
("heat"). Self-discipline. One of the five niyamas.
Hindu doctine that Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva (Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, respectively) are three forms of the unmanifested Ultimate Reality. The doctrine developed around 1000 CE in an attempt to synthesize various sects. Today, the Trimurti continues to appear in temples, the vast majority of which are dedicated to Vishnu or Shiva. See Hindu Gods.
Genre of Vedic texts that were the last to be added (and thus also known as Vedanta, "the end of the Vedas), written between 1000 and 500 BCE. The Upanishads are much less concerned with Vedic gods and rituals than other Vedic texts, and focus on philosophical and mystical questions about reality. The Upanishads contain the teaching that atman (the self) is Brahman (ultimate reality), and that knowledge of Brahman brings release (moksa) from the suffering of rebirth (samsara). The later Upanishads are less philosophical and more sectarian.
Follower of the god Vishnu and of the devotional (bhakti) tradition of Vaisnavism. Vishnu is mainly worshipped in the form of one of his incarnations. Vaisnavites wear three markings in a V formation on their foreheads.
("color"). Four categories of Hindu society dating from the time of the Vedas: Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras. The varnas are ordered according to occupation, whereas castes (jati) are based on social status into which one is born, but the two systems are historically related.
("End of the Vedas"). System of Hindu philosophy based on the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavad-Gita. Includes both dualist (dvaita) and nondualist (advaita) schools as well as others, but all believe in transmigration (samsara), the desirability of escape from it, the authority of the Vedas, Brahman as the cause of the universe, and the law of karma.
("knowledge"). Collection of Hindu scriptures regarded as sacred and authoritative by all Hindus. See Vedas.
("pervader"). Major deity and member of Hindu trinity with Brahma and Shiva. Seen as the preserver of the universe and embodiment of goodness and mercy. To Vaisnavites, Vishnu is the supreme deity (Isvara) who becomes incarnate in times of crisis and declining dharma. Vishnu is usually depicted standing, holding weapons, or reclining on a serpent.
Moral restraint; something one should not do. Comparable to the western idea of sin.

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